# Estrella Johnson

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Associate Professor, Mathematics Department

Assistant Dean for Inclusion and Diversity, College of Science

Virginia Tech

540.231.8273

Last Updated Feb, 2022

## Education

Portland State University, PhD in Mathematics Education, May, 2013

Portland State University, Master’s in the Science of Teaching Mathematics, August 2009

New Mexico State University, Bachelor’s of Science in Secondary Mathematics Education, May 2007

Professional Positions

2021 – present, Assistant Dean for Inclusion and Diversity, College of Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA

2020 – 2021, Director of Inclusion and Diversity, College of Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA

2020 – present, Associate Professor, Department of Mathematics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA

2013 – 2020, Assistant Professor, Department of Mathematics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA

## Grants

### **Current**

Principal Investigator for a $129,315 NSF ISUE grant, “*Collaborative Research: Evaluating the Uptake of Research-Based Instructional Strategies in Undergraduate Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics*.” NSF Award #1726281 (Total award amount $1,196,203; NSF Awards #1726281, #1726379, #1726328, #1726042, #1726126); Sept 2018 – Aug 2022

* ***Previous**

Senior Personnel for a $1,341,181 NSF IUSE grant, “*Progressing Through Calculus*.” NSF Award #1430540; Jan 2015 – Jun 2021

Principal Investigator at the lead institution for a $297,271 NSF IUSE grant, “*Collaborative Research: Teaching Inquiry-Oriented Mathematics: Establishing Supports*.” NSF Award #143195 (Total award amount: $1,188,984; NFS Awards: #143195, #1431641, #1431393); Aug 2014 – July 2018

Consultant (and former graduate research assistant) for a $2,367,889 NSF REESE grant, “*Characteristics of Successful Programs in College Calculus*.” NSF Award # 0910240; Aug 2008 – Dec 2014

## Publications

### **Refereed Journal Publications**

Reinholtz, D., Johnson, E., Andrews-Larson, C., Stone-Johnstone, A., Smith, J., Mullins, S.B., Fortune, N., Keene, K., Shah, N. (In Press) When active learning is inequitable: Women’s participation predicts gender inequities in mathematical performance. *Journal for Research in Mathematics Education*. Accepted for Publication on Aug 9, 2021

Yik, B.J., Raker, J., Apkarian, N., Stains, M., Henderson, C., Dancy, M., & Johnson. E. (2022). Evaluating the impact of malleable factors on percent time lecturing in gateway chemistry, mathematics, and physics courses. *International Journal of STEM Education. 9(15).*

Chowdhury, A., Mullins, S.B., & Johnson, E. (2021) Context matters: Understanding the relationship between instructor’s beliefs and the amount of time spent lecturing. *International Journal for Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education*, Published online Nov 11, 2021.

Rupnow, R., Hegg, M., Fukawa-Connelly, T., Johnson, E., & Weber, K. (2021) How mathematicians assign homework problems in abstract algebra courses. *Journal for Mathematical Behavior*, 64: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmathb.2021.100914

Apkarian N., Henderson C., Stains M., Raker J., Johnson E, Dancy, M. (2021) What really impacts the use of active learning in undergraduate STEM education? Results from a national survey of chemistry, mathematics, and physics instructors. *PLOS ONE* ,16(2): e0247544. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0247544

Andrews-Larson, C., Johnson, E., Peterson, V., & Keller, R. (2021). Doing math with mathematicians to support pedagogical reasoning about inquiry-oriented instruction. *Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education. 24*, 127-154

Johnson, E., Andrews-Larson, C., Keene, K., Keller, R., Fortune, N., & Melhuish, K. (2020). Inquiry and inequity in the undergraduate mathematics classroom. *Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 51(4), *504-516.

Johnson, E., Keller, R., Peterson, V., & Fukawa-Connelly, T. (2019). Individual and situational factors influencing pedagogical practice. *International Journal of STEM Education. *

Kuster, G., Johnson, E., Rupnow, R., & Garrison-Wilhelm, A. (2019) The Inquiry-Oriented Instructional Measure. *International Journal for Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education.*

Rasmussen, C., Apkarian, N., Hagman, J., Johnson, E., Larsen, S., & Bressoud, D. (2019). Characteristics of Precalculus through Calculus 2 programs: Insights from a national census survey. *Journal for Research in Mathematics Education.*

Keller, R., & Johnson, E. (2019). Effects of individual and situational characteristics on the use of student-centered pedagogy in Calculus I. *International Journal for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. *

Johnson, E., Keller, R. & Fukawa-Connelly, T. (2018). Results from a national survey of abstract algebra instructors: Understanding the choice to (not) lecture. *International Journal for Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education. 4(2), *254-285

Kuster, G., Johnson, E., Keene, K., & Andrews-Larson, C. (2018). Inquiry-oriented instruction: A conceptualization of the instructional components and practices. *Problems, Resources, and Issues in Mathematics Undergraduate Studies, 28(1), *13-30

Keller, R., Johnson, E., & DeShong, S. (2017). A structural equation model looking at student’s participatory behavior and their success in Calculus I. *International Journal of STEM Education*. 4(1), 24

Hagman, J., Johnson, E., & Fosdick, B. (2017). Feeling the squeeze: Factors contributing to experiencing a lack of time in college calculus. *International Journal of STEM Education. 4*(1), 12

Johnson, E., Ellis, J., Rasmussen, C. (2016), It’s about time: The relationships between coverage and instructional practices in college calculus. *International Journal for Mathematical Education in Science and Technology*, *47(4), 491-504*

Johnson, E. (2013). Teacher’s mathematical activity in inquiry-oriented instruction. *Journal of Mathematical Behavior. 32(4) *

Johnson, E., Caughman, J., Fredericks, J., & Gibson, L. (2013). Implementing inquiry-oriented curriculum: From the mathematicians’ perspective. *Journal of Mathematical Behavior.* *32(4)*

Larsen, S., Johnson, E., & Bartlo, J. (2013). Designing and scaling up an innovation in abstract algebra. *Journal of Mathematical Behavior.* *32(4)*

Lockwood E., Johnson, E., & Larsen S. (2013). Developing instructor support materials for an inquiry-oriented curriculum. *Journal of Mathematical Behavior. 32(4)*

Johnson, E. M. S., & Larsen, S. (2012). Teacher listening: The role of knowledge of content and students. *Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 31*, 117 – 129.

**Editorships**

Johnson, E., Apkarian, N., Vroom, K., Martinez, A., Rasmussen, C., & Bressoud, D. (Eds). (In Press). *Addressing Challenges to the Precalculus to Calculus II Sequence through Case Studies*. Mathematical Association of America. Washington, DC.

Larsen, S., Johnson, E., Weber, K. (Eds). (2013*). *The Teaching Abstract Algebra for Understanding Project: Designing and Scaling up a Curriculum Innovation.* Journal of* *Mathematical Behavior, 32(4). *

**Edited Chapters and Publications**

Johnson, E. (2019). Chapter 6. Undergraduate mathematics instruction: Not as bad as you’d think? S. Laursen & B. Ruedi (Eds.), *Levers for change: An assessment of progress on changing STEM instruction*. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Washington, DC.

Fukawa-Connelly, T., Johnson, E., & Keller, R. (2016). Can math education research improve the teaching of abstract algebra? *Notices of the AMS 63(3).*

Johnson, E. (2016). What is in Calculus I? *MAA FOCUS, 36(2). 17-20.*

Johnson, E. & Hanson, K. (2015). Chapter 6: Academic and Social Supports. D. Bressoud, C. Rasmussen, & V. Mesa (Eds.), *Insights and Recommendations from the MAA National Study of Calculus, *Mathematical Association of America. Washington, DC.

**Refereed Conference Proceedings**

Moore, A. S., & Johnson, E. (2021). Borders, gender, and performative contradictions in active learning. In D. Kollosche (Ed.), *Exploring new ways to connect: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Mathematics Education and Society Conference,* Vol. 1 (pp. 203–206). Tredition. https://www.mescommunity.info/proceedings/MES11.pdf

Alzaga Elizondo, T., Ellis, B., Apkarian, N., Sanchez-Robayo, B., Robbins, C., & Johnson, E. (2020). Departmental Change in Reaction to the Threat of Losing Calculus: Three Cases. In S.S. Karunakaran, Z. Reed, and A. Higgins *Proceedings of the 23 ^{rd} Annual Conference on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education* (p. 151-158). Boston, MA.

Apkarian, N., Johnson, E., Raker, J., Stains, M., Henderson, C., & Dancy, M. (2020) Assessing the Uptake of Research Based Instructional Strategies by Postsecondary Mathematics Instructors. In S.S. Karunakaran, Z. Reed, and A. Higgins *Proceedings of the 23 ^{rd} Annual Conference on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education* (p. 18-27). Boston, MA.

Fukawa-Connelly, T., Johnson, E., Hegg, M., Weber, K., & Rupnow, R.L. (2020) How Mathematicians Assign Homework Problems in Advanced Mathematics Courses. In S.S. Karunakaran, Z. Reed, and A. Higgins *Proceedings of the 23 ^{rd} Annual Conference on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education* (p. 1053 -1059). Boston, MA.

Keller, R., Johnson, E., Keene, K., Andrews-Larsen, C., & Fortune, N. (2020). For Women in Lecture, How They Feel Matters – A Lot Keller. In S.S. Karunakaran, Z. Reed, and A. Higgins *Proceedings of the 23 ^{rd} Annual Conference on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education* (p. 1093-1098). Boston, MA.

Mullins, S.B., Serbin, K., & Johnson, E. (2020). Relational Interactions in Inquiry-Oriented Undergraduate Mathematics Classes. In S.S. Karunakaran, Z. Reed, and A. Higgins *Proceedings of the 23 ^{rd} Annual Conference on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education* (p. 1060-1065). Boston, MA.

Serbin, K., Mullins, S.B., Kelley, M.A., & Johnson, E. (2020). Social norms conducive to women’s learning in inquiry-oriented abstract algebra. In A. Isabel Sacristán, J.C Cortés-Zavala, & P.M. Ruiz-Arias (Eds.) *Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education*. Mazatlán, Mexico.

Johnson, E., Andrews-Larson, C., Keene, K., Melhuish, K., Keller, R., & Fortune, N. (2019). Inquiry does not guarentee equity. *Proceedings of the Twenty-second Special Interest Group of the Mathematical Association of America on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education
Conference on Research in
Undergraduate Mathematics Education. Oklahoma City, OK.*

Johnson, E., Andrews-Larson, C., Keene, K., Keller, R., Fortune, N., & Melhuish, K. (2018). Inquiry and inequity in the undergraduate mathematics classroom. *Proceedings of the 40 ^{th}*

*Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education.*Greenville, SC.

Johnson, E., Keller, R., Fukawa-Connelly, T., Peterson, V. (2018). Individual and situational factors related to lecturing in abstract algebra.* Proceedings of the **Twenty-first **Special Interest Group of the Mathematical Association of America on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education
Conference on Research in
Undergraduate Mathematics Education*. San Diego, CA.

Kuster, G., Rupnow, R., Johnson, E., Garrison-Wilhelm, A. (2018). The development of the inquiry-oriented instructional measure. *Proceedings of the **Twenty-first **Special Interest Group of the Mathematical Association of America on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education
Conference on Research in
Undergraduate Mathematics Education*. San Diego, CA.

Keller, R,. Johnson, E., Peterson, V., & Fukawa-Connelly, T. (2017) Undergraduate Abstract Algebra: Is teaching different at ‘teaching” universities?. *Proceedings of the **Twentieth **Special Interest Group of the Mathematical Association of America on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education
Conference on Research in
Undergraduate Mathematics Education*. San Diego, CA.

Ellis, J., Johnson, E., & Fosdick, B. (2016). Feeling the squeeze: Factors contributing to experiencing a lack of time in college calculus. *Proceedings of the 38 ^{th}*

*Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education.*Tucson, AZ.

Fukawa-Connelly, T., Johnson, E., & Keller, R. (2016). Results from a national survey of abstract algebra instructors: Math ed is solving problems they don’t have. *Proceedings of the **Nineteenth *

Rasmussen, C., Apkarian, N., Bressoud, D., Ellis, J., Johnson, E., & Larsen, S. (2016). A national investigation of precalculus through calculus 2. *Proceedings of the** Nineteenth *

Kuster, G. & Johnson, E. (2016). Inquiry-oriented instruction: A conceptualization of the instructional the components and practices. *Proceedings of the** Nineteenth *

Hanson, K. & Johnson, E. (2015). Building student communities through academic supports. *Proceedings of the** Eighteenth*

Johnson, E. (2015). Towards a measure of inquiry-oriented teaching. *Proceedings of the** Eighteenth*

Ellis, J., Johnson, E., & Rasmussen, C. (2015). It’s about time: How instructors and students experience time constraints in Calculus I. *Proceedings of the** Eighteenth*

Johnson, E., Ellis, J., & Rasmussen, C. (2014). It’s about time: How instructors and students experience time constraints in Calculus I. *Proceedings of the** 38 ^{th} Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education and the 36^{th} Conference of the North American Chapter of the Psychology of Mathematics Education.* Vancouver, British Columbia.

Johnson, E. (2014). Two metaphors for realistic mathematics education design heuristics: implications for documenting student learning. *Proceedings of the** Seventeenth *

Johnson, E., Ellis, J. & Rasmussen, C. (2014)*. *How to make time: The relationships between concerns about coverage, material covered, instructional practices, and student success in college calculus*. **Proceedings of the** Seventeenth *

Larsen, S., Johnson, E., & Zazkis, D. (2014), Characteristics of successful programs in college calculus: How calculus instructors talk about their students. *Proceedings of the** Seventeenth **. *Denver, CO*.*

Melhuish, K. & Johnson, E. (2014), Instructors’ beliefs on the role of calculus. *Proceedings of the** Seventeenth **Special Interest Group of the Mathematical Association of America on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education
Conference on Research in
Undergraduate Mathematics Education,* Denver, CO*.*

Melhuish, K., Larsen, S. Glover, E., & Johnson, E. (2014), Characteristics of successful programs in college calculus at bachelor’s granting universities. *Proceedings of the** Seventeenth **. *Denver, CO

Johnson, E. (2013)*. *Implications of Realistic Mathematics Education for Analyzing Student Learning. *Proceedings of the** Sixteenth Special Interest Group of the Mathematical Association of America on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education
Conference on Research in
Undergraduate Mathematics Education*. Denver, CO.

Johnson, E. (2012) Mathematical Activity for Teaching. *Proceedings of the** Fifteenth Special Interest Group of the Mathematical Association of America on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education
Conference on Research in
Undergraduate Mathematics Education*. Portland, OR.

Johnson, E. & McCaffery, C. (2011). Navigating the Implementation of an Inquiry-Oriented Task in a Community College. *Proceedings of the** Fourteenth *

Larsen, S., Johnson, E., & Scholl, T. (2011)*.* Putting Research to Work: Web‐Based Instructor Support Materials for an Inquiry Oriented Abstract Algebra Curriculum. *Proceedings of the** Fourteenth *

### Invited Talks and Presentations

Johnson, E. (2021). *Undergraduate Math and Science Instructor’s Attitudes, Beliefs, and Views on Diversity, Inclusion, and Equity*. Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education Invited Seminar, Department of Mathematics, University of Oklahoma, Sept 15, 2021.

Johnson, E. (2021). *Inquiry-oriented Instruction is Better, but Just For Some?*, Invited Colloquium, *Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Cal State Long Beach, Sept 17, 2021. *

Johnson, E. (2020). *Taking an instructional innovation to scale*: *Processing an unexpected result*. Invited Keynote given at 4th Annual NE RUME Conference. *Oct. 3, 2020.*

Johnson, E. (2020). *Taking an Instructional Innovation to Scale: Characterizing, Supporting, and Evaluating Inquiry-Oriented Instruction*. Invited Colloquium, Department of Mathematics*, *Arizona State University. *Nov. 13, 2020.*

Johnson, E. (2020). *Taking an Instructional Innovation to Scale: Characterizing, Supporting, and Evaluating Inquiry-Oriented Instruction.* Invited Colloquium, Department of Mathematics, Texas State University. *Sept. 4, 2020.*

Johnson, E. (2020). *Some unintended consequences of active learning*. Invited Presentation at the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute’s Critical Issues in Mathematics Education 2020 Workshop Series. *April 10, 2020.*

Johnson, E. (2019). Taking an Instructional Innovation to Scale: Characterizing, Supporting, and Evaluating Inquiry-Oriented Instruction. *Mathematics Education Research Seminar, Department of Mathematics, Virginia Commonwealth University. Nov. 19, 2019.*

Johnson, E. (2019). Inquiry-oriented Instruction is Better… For Some, *Center for Excellence for Science Education, Penn State, April 29, 2019. *

Johnson, E., Fortune, N., Andrews-Larson, C., Keene, K. (2019). Report on TIMES Grant: Characterizing, Supporting, and Evaluating Inquiry-Oriented Instruction. MAA Invited Paper Session on Research in Improving Undergraduate Mathematical Sciences Education: Examples Supported by the National Science Foundation’s IUSE: EHR Program Presented at the Joint Mathematical Meetings, Jan 2019, Baltimore, MD.

Johnson, E., (2018). Characterizing, Supporting, and Evaluating Inquiry-Oriented Instruction, *Virginia Tech Engineering Education Seminar, Aug 31, 2018. *

Johnson, E., (2018). Characterizing, Supporting, and Evaluating Inquiry-Oriented Instruction, *University of Arizona Mathematics Department Colloquium, March 29, 2018. *

Johnson, E. (2017). MAA’s national studies on college calculus: Eye towards Bachelor’s granting institutions, *Christopher Newport University Mathematics Department Colloquium*, Oct 26, 2017.

Johnson, E., Andrews-Larson, C., Keene, K. (2017). Teaching Inquiry-oriented Mathematics: Establishing Supports. *MAA Invited Paper Session on Research in Improving Undergraduate Mathematical Sciences Education: Examples Supported by the National Science Foundation’s IUSE: EHR Program*. Presented at the Joint Mathematical Meetings, Jan. 2017, Atlanta, GA.

Johnson, E. (2015) Characterizing, Investigating, and Supporting Inquiry-Oriented Teaching, *Colorado State University Mathematics Department Colloquium, May, 6, 2015*

Johnson, E. (February, 2012). Mathematical Activity for Teaching. *Poster Session at the Fifteenth Special Interest Group of the Mathematical Association of America on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education
Conference on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education*. Portland, OR.

Johnson, E., Larsen, S. (January, 2012). Teaching Abstract Algebra for Understanding. *NSF-MAA Joint Poster Session, AMS-MAA Joint Mathematics Meetings*. Boston, MA.

Johnson, E., Larsen, S. (January, 2011). Teaching Abstract Algebra for Understanding. *NSF-MAA Joint Poster Session, AMS-MAA Joint Mathematics Meetings.* New Orleans, LA.

Johnson, E., Larsen, S., (September, 2011). Teacher listening: The role of knowledge of content and students. *Seminar, San Diego State University*.

### Recent Teaching Experience

MATH 4626, Mathematics for Secondary Teachers II, Spring 2016, Spring 2019

Course activities emphasize the curricular themes of problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, connections, and representation; topics in high school mathematics from an advanced perspective

MATH 3124, Modern Algebra, Spring 2018, Fall 2015, Spring 2015, Spring 2014

Topics in groups, quotient groups, rings, integral domains, fields

MATH 4664, Senior Mathematics Education Seminar, Fall 2017, Fall 2016, Fall 2015

The main goal of the seminar is for you to become reflective mathematics teachers. This involves understanding the nature of mathematics teaching and learning. We will have a semester long theme focusing on *conceptual* *understanding. *This theme will be used to investigate mathematics content, the teaching of mathematics, and the learning of mathematics.

MATH 4625, Mathematics for Secondary Teachers I, Fall 2014, Fall 2018

Course activities emphasize the curricular themes of problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, connections, and representation; topics in discrete mathematics and algebra from a secondary teaching perspective

MATH 5984, Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education, Spring 2018, Spring 2014

A survey of the body of research on undergraduate mathematics education, readings focused on: student understanding of undergraduate mathematics content and practices; the development and design of research-based undergraduate curricular materials and the theory that supports such work; the teaching of undergraduate mathematics; and, the state of undergraduate STEM education

MATH 5984, Special Topics: Research on Teaching, Fall 2019

A survey the body of research on teaching and teaching practice of mathematics and science K-16 education. Readings focused on: instructional practice, influences on instructional practice, and measures of instruction.

### Service to the Research Community

Secretary Elect for the Special Interest Group of the Mathematical Association of America on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education

Member of the Ad-Hoc Committee for the Advancement of LGBTQIA+ Inclusion in the RUME Community of the Special Interest Group of the Mathematical Association of America on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education, 2018 – 2019.

Member of the Program Committee of the Special Interest Group of the Mathematical Association of America on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education, 2014 – present

Chair of the Family Attending RUME Together Committee of the Special Interest Group of the Mathematical Association of America on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education, 2017 – present

Member of the Equity and Mentoring Committee of the Special Interest Group of the Mathematical Association of America on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education, 2017 – present

Member of the Nominating Committee of the Special Interest Group of the Mathematical Association of America on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education, 2016 – 2017